Mbachu, C. B, Ulasi, A. J, Nnake, E. J..
Page No : 1-6
MOTOR SPEED SENSING TECHNIQUES FOR INDUCTION MOTORS
Correct sensing, transmission and display of revolution per minute (rpm) speed of shafts is very important for smooth running and control of induction motors. Speed sensors sense shaft speed. Therefore, sensors are a critical component in a motor control system. When speed sensors are used in closed loop for feedback in a motor control system, it enables the designer to adjust the stator voltage/frequency relationship to realize the desired speed with minimal losses and improve the motor’s reliability by detecting fault conditions that may damage the motor. RPM sensors that can be used to feedback information to microcontroller include shaft encoders, proximity sensors, photoelectric sensors, sitrans WS300, quadrature encoder and Hall Effect tachometer. When choosing sensors, it is necessary to make sure the resolution of the sensor is appropriate for the speed of the shaft. Two factors that affect the quality of speed data (which are in form of pulses) are number of pulses per revolution (PPR) of the shaft and symmetry of the pulses.
Ulasi, A. J., Iloh, J. I, Owolabi, M. I.
Page No : 7-14
VOLTAGE STABILITY ANALYSIS USING PSS IN IMO STATE NETWORK
The action of a power system stabilizer (PSS) is to extend the angular stability limits of a power system by providing a supplementary damping to the oscillation of synchronous machine motors through the generator excitation. PSS controller design, method of combining the PSS with the excitation controller (AVR), investigation of the voltage of the network, how much load in the form of loading parameter are presented in this paper. Power system analysis toolbox (PSAT) was used to analyze the network to compare when PSS is not included and when it is included in the network. The network considered is the Imo state (Eastern part of Nigeria) network. The network consists of three (3) generators and eleven buses. Simulation results show that when PSS is not used all the buses were violated running a continuation power flow (CPF) method, but when PSS was added , there was no violation at the point of collapse. The loading factor increased when PSS is added (6.0513pu) as compared to when PSS is not added (1.0561pu). It can be concluded from the result that PSS will greatly improve the existing network both in the area of stabilizing the voltage and withstanding additional load in the network
Atanmo, P. N, Nwankwo, E. I..
Page No : 15-21
CORROSION-RELATED EQUIPMENT FAILURES IN NIGERIA OIL/GAS INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY
The focus of this study is to understand the prevalence of corrosion-related failures in Nigeria Oil/Gas Industry and seek ways to arrest the degradation of the facilities. The hash environmental conditions are known to severely affect the equipment integrity i.e., the exposure causes corrosion of the equipment. Events in the industry show that failures of these equipment have occurred due to corrosive action. The failures have led to environmental impacts such as spills and releases to the environment, others have led to production shut-ins with loss of revenue. All these touch the business bottom line which is costs and profits. Different oil/gas facilities in Niger-Delta were studied through site visits, observations, measurements and photographic analysis. The study established that location of the various equipment makes them susceptible to weathering effects. They experience cycles of rains, sunshine and humid ambience. Crevice, galvanic, pitting and “dry corrosion” mechanisms are dominant and, in some, result in uniform corrosion. There were cases of bacteria-related attacks on the internals of some equipment. The average metal thickness loss was established at about 12.5%. Use of more modern corrosion protection measures should be considered including increased deployment of corrosion-resistant alloys. Heavy coatings of the tank roofs under sides with anti-corrosive agents prior erection are required. Welded rather than bolted and riveted connections should be designed to minimize crevices where deep pittings are known to occur. Reinforcements with closed tubular sections are preferred to channel sections to avoid trapping of corrodents.
Nwabueze, C. A., Nzeife, I. D.
Page No : 22-31
FRAMEWORK OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (WSN) FOR OIL AND GAS INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION WITH EMPHASIS ON NIGER DELTA REGION OF NIGERIA
This paper studied and highlights the security and technical challenges facing the deployment and utilization of IEEE 802.15.4 based Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) devices used to facilitate remote oil and gas field monitoring in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The underlining crises were also highlighted and a solution framework was proffered. The framework includes suggestion for amicable resolutions between parties, putting in place a proactive WSN structure for monitoring infrastructure to facilitate easy and fast detection and reporting of vandalized oil and gas facilities. A designed data encryption algorithm to secure the validity of information using symmetric encryption was also presented. This paper also presents an overview of sensor devices, the advantages of WSN over the wired monitoring system for pipeline monitoring and application environment. Overview of conflicts and security challenges in oil and gas exploration fields in the Niger Delta region are also discussed. Encryption as a standard method for protecting WSN data from possible attacks, advantages and disadvantages of the two classes of encryption methods and the System’s framework for the monitoring the infrastructure and designed encryption algorithm of the system are presented.
UMEONYIAGU, I. E.
Page No : 32-36
INFLUENCE OF WATER/CEMENT RATIO ON THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MADE WITH UNWASHED LOCAL GRAVEL
This paper studied the influence of water/cement ratio on the flexural strength of concrete made with unwashed local gravel from Abagana in Anambra state. In the research work, concrete beams of dimensions 600mm x 150mm x150mm —three for each experimental point were made. The water/cement ratio, w/c ranged from 0.46 to 0.56 for the mix ratio of 1:1:2 and from 0.55 to 0.63 for the mix ratio of 1:2:4. The batching was by weight. These beams were then tested based on the procedures prescribed in BS 1881: Part 118:1983. The graphs of the flexural strengths against water/cement ratios were hyperbolic in nature. The equations of the graphs were y = -636.6x2 + 645.6x - 160.35 and y = -636.36x2 + 752.41x - 219.62 for the mix ratios of 1:1:2 and 1:2:4 respectively, where y represented the flexural strength in N/mm2 and x represented the water/cement ratio, w/c. As the water/cement ratio increased, the flexural strength of the samples rose to a peak before declining. The mix ratio of 1:1:2 had a peak flexural strength of 3.33 N/mm2 at w/c = 0.51 and the mix ratio of 1:2:4, a peak of 2.79 N/mm2 at w/c = 0.59.
Nwabueze, C. A., Nwosu, F. C, Muohgalu, C. N.
Page No : 37-47
BIO-CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR ENHANCED E-VOTING SCHEME
This paper presented a simulation model of an enhanced e-voting system based on bio-cryptographic schemes. A lot of work has been done on e-voting systems using biometrics as well as cryptographic schemes but not fusing both. This work provides an improvement on the already existing E-voting models by fusing and adopting biometric and cryptographic techniques as well as using a secure transmission channel for confidential datasets in the voting process. A model of an e-voting system leveraging on Biometric Encryption using Biometric key binding on fingerprints for the proposed SMARESIM (Self-monitoring analysis and reporting E-voting simulation model) has been developed and simulated. In the bio-cryptographic scheme, a digital key is randomly generated during enrollment. This key and the fingerprint are monolithically bound using cryptographic algorithms, that is, the randomly generated key is hidden within the biometric sample collected using bit replacement algorithms. When the user presents the fingerprint sample and it matches the biometrically encrypted key, the randomly generated key during enrollment will be regenerated and thus the user will be authenticated. The SMARESIM minimizes vulnerabilities associated with the conventional voting schemes, leading to minimization of electoral fraud.
Iwoha, A. U, Atanmo, P. N, Swift, O. N. K, Nwankwo, E. I.
Page No : 48-59
CRUDE OIL SETTLING VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS –A CASE STUDY OF VESSELS IN AN OIL/GAS GATHERING FACILITY
An analysis is performed to determine the cause(s) of failure of atmospheric, flat-fixed roof cylindrical
vessels of vertical design used for transit storage (settling vessel) of hydrocarbon liquid (crude oil) in an oil
and gas bearing facility. The vessel is fabricated with normalized low carbon steel (mild steel) plates
designed as per API STD 650 and welded per ASME SECTION IX codes. Less than five (5) years in service,
the vessels were noticed to be oozing out crude oil from and around the welded seams. This was less than
the expected service life, it was designed for twenty-two and half (22
) years’ service duration. The vessel
characteristics, namely, material allowable stress, plate thickness were analyzed for ability to cope with the
duty load imposed by the stored liquid. Further, sections were cut from the unfailed parts of the tanks and
were subjected to mechanical tests and results compared with specifications. The failed weldment
components were examined visually and metallurgically. The observed failures were due to design and
welding errors: for instance, the service load on the vessel internal exceeded the maximum allowable static
stress of the material. The welding procedure specification was inadequate for the duty as the mechanical
properties obtained were lower than required. This led to weakening of the welded seams. To prevent these
failures required choice of material (metal plates) with adequate thickness as well as use of assured welding
procedure (including effective inter pass temperatures) during welding to achieve the specified mechanical
Mbachu, C. B, Agbasiere, G. C.
Page No : 60-75
A MODEL OF AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION AND SUPPRESSION SYSTEM WITH IMPROVED EFFICIENCY
This work develops an improved automated fire management scheme on leveraging mathematical formulations
by integrating signal detection filters for the detection of predetermined signal properties, adopting a scheme
for energy release prediction as an efficient means of reducing both rate of false alarm/the rate of failure to
alert and finally tuning the microcontroller using PID control. These three formulations are then enshrined
and implemented through the control program in the microprocessor of the proposed system. These
mathematical formulations would help improve the overall response of the system by ensuring it minimizes to
the barest minimum, cases of false alarm triggering and false response to what is not fire. The simulation model
leveraging on the mathematical models of the algorithms enumerated then characterizes the behaviour of the
system. The simulation model is characterized with PROTEUS ISIS 7.8 to give a true life scenario. The
proposed system would work in real time when fire is detected, alert the occupant and start suppression
immediately, thereby minimizing collateral damage and fatality.
Mbachu, C. B, Nnake, E. J.
Page No : 76-86
FREQUENCY VARIATION FOR INDUCTION MOTOR CONTROL
Machine control, especially that of induction motors, is an essential consideration on the program of any
industrial world. Efficient machine control, not only saves power consumption, but increases productivity. Threephase
switching device and AT89C52 microcontroller, an enhanced
frequency drive for controlling the speed and torque of 3-phase 15kW squirrel cage induction motor is modeled.
Different voltages ranging from 342V to 415V and frequencies ranging from 50Hz to 60Hz are used in a
systematic manner to simulate the system based on the new switching device. The simulation program is written
in C language and tested with Proteus 7.6 simulation software. Voltage and frequency have significant impact on
the actual speed and torque of the motor. Simulation results show that with the new model, the torque (56.66Nm)
developed by the motor which is constant throughout each speed range is directly proportional to the ratio (6.7)
of the applied voltage and the frequency of the supply and the selected speeds (1450, 1510, 1570, 1630, 1690 and
1750 rpm) are locked irrespective of change in load. This is unlike other models where magnetic saturation and
conduction drop of IGBT lead to voltage/frequency imbalance resulting in excessive drawing of current by the
motor and overheating. This new control method has a speed regulation of ±2 to 3% of maximum frequency,
speed response of 3Hz, speed control range of 1: 40 and efficiency of 88%, as further advantages. Comparison
of the system with other speed control techniques shows improved energy-saving, cost effectiveness and safety in
Nwabueze, C. A., EMENOGU, C. E, MUOGHALU, C. N.
Page No : 87-97
IMPROVING HANDOFF IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS USING BIT ERROR RATE OPTIMIZATION
In the concept of handoff performance in mobile communication, Bit Error Rate (BER) was not fully
considered, hence this dissertation focused on Mobility Management Scheme (MMS) in mobile communication
using BER as sensitive parameter as well as throughput, media access delay and call drop. Multilinks Nigeria
was used as the research test bed. A Multilink base station (mast) of height 32m with ID number
HT/SE/NE/008 located at longitude N06
27’53.2” and E007
33’09.6 Emene Enugu (Enugu State Nigeria) with
transmission power (TX power) 35dBw and transmission frequency 881.25MHz was used. A BER
implementation model, MATLAB Simulink was developed while showing the validation results. The Gaussian
Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) modulator was used in the model to provide spectrally efficient modulation
scheme which leads to a good BER performance and self-synchronizing capability. Empirical Mode
decomposition (EMD) was used further to process the signals. The validated result showed that at signal to
noise ratio (SNR) of 5, BER of the existing model was 0.006 and the proposed model was 3 at the same BER
which resulted to a coding gain of 2dB. This showed that the proposed system performs better than the existing
one; therefore the system achieved a good reliability as a transceiver over the existing system. Also, an
empirical study on the Quality of Service (QoS) metrics for micro and macro mobility was achieved with much
improvement in micro mobility compared with macro mobility.
Ikueze, E. N, Nwanekezie, M. N, Ogah, A. O.
Page No : 98-103
EFFECTS OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF BANANA FIBER REINFORCED THERMOSETTING POLYMER COMPOSITES
Synthetic fibers (such as glass, carbon, ceramic fibers, etc) which were imported at huge cost could be
replaced by natural fibers such as flax, hemp, jute, kenaf, etc. and widely used. In this research work,
banana fiber reinforced vinylester matrix composites have been developed by hand layup molding technique
with varying parameters, such as fiber condition (untreated and chemically treated), fiber sizes 10,30 and
50 cm and fiber content (10%, 30% and 50% by weight). The developed banana fiber reinforced composites
were then characterized by chemical methods. The results show that tensile strength increases with increase
in the fiber size and content; however, after a certain size and fiber content, the tensile strength decreased
again. The maximum Tensile strength was 1127N/mm
at a fiber length of 2.2cm and volume fraction of
Okoronkwo, G. O, Madumelu, P. C.
Page No : 104-109
CHEMICAL TREATMENTS OF NATURAL ARECA FIBER FOR USE IN NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES
Chemical treatments are considered in modifying the fiber surface properties. In this paper, two different
chemical modifications on natural areca fibers for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites are studied.
These chemical treatments include alkali and silane treatments. The chemical treatments of this fiber
improved the adhesion between the fiber surfaces and the polymer matrix, modify the fiber surfaces and also
increased the fiber strengths (255.63N/mm
for mercerization process at 2wt% 150mins and 255.1N/mm
for silane coupling at 10wt% 150mins, respectively). The water absorption tendencies of the areca fiber
treated at these optimum treatment conditions reduced drastically.
Nnaemeka, C. J, Onukwuli, O. D, Ikezue, E.
Page No : 110-119
Production of Biodiesel from Waste Ube Fruit Oil Using Acid-Base Catalysis
A two step process consisting of esterification and transesterification was developed to produce biodiesel from crude
waste ube fruit oil. The oil was extracted from the waste ube pulp using solvent extraction process. The free fatty acids
(FFA) in the oil were converted to methyl esters in the pre-esterification step using sulphuric acid as catalyst. The FFA
was reduced from 77.84% to below 1% in 2hours under 10wt% of methanol, 1wt% Sulphuric acid in oil at 60
yield of biodiesel by transesterification was 95.5% in 60minutes at methanol/oil ratio of 6:1 at temperature of 60
catalyst ratio of 1% and reaction time of 60minutes.
Nwosu, A. W, Iwueze, O. J.
Page No : 120-131
LOAD FREQUENCY CONTROL OF INTERCONNECTED AREA NETWORK USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: A STUDY OF OWERRI METROPOLIS
This paper focuses on the analysis of Owerri network using load frequency control. The LFC is further analyzed
using fuzzy logic controller and neural network controller for optimization. The result is compared and relevant
conclusions are drawn. Applying a conventional load frequency control (LFC), the deviation error in the
frequency is high after about 15 seconds and it continues on that steady deviation error. When fuzzy logic
control is applied, it continue in a stable manner without error until 10 seconds. The frequency continues to
fluctuate until it comes to stability for the specified three areas. Area 1 became perfectly stable after 27
seconds, while area 2 became perfectly stable after 19 seconds and area 3 after 26 seconds. It can be concluded
that applying Fuzzy Load Frequency Controls (FLFC) to Owerri network helped to stabilize the frequency of
the network. It also achieved zero steady state error and inadvertent interchange, safe operation of the system,
balancing of the voltage and achieved load reducing system collapse and low power outages.
Nwabueze, C. A., EKENGWU, B. O, MUOGHALU, C. N.
Page No : 132-139
IMPROVING SECURITY LEVEL OF ATM BANKING SYSTEMS USING BIOMETRIC KEY BINDING CRYPTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE
With rapid growth in the use of automated teller machines (ATMs), there is need to develop secure, robust and
reliable schemes to securely/correctly authenticate users. The conventional ATM authentication schemes
available are mostly cryptographic based and this gives room to lots of vulnerabilities. This paper presents an
improvement on the conventional cryptographic security scheme currently used in ATMs by proposing the
application of Biometric Key Binding (BKB) technique which fuses biometric security with cryptographic
protocols on biometric template generated from input test images. The application of BKB not only protects the
information of the user’s biometric features, but also securely releases cryptographic key that is bound with
biometric trait in a monolithic framework. The ease and protection provided by the proposed technique
promotes improved security for widespread use of cryptographic systems. This technique provides high output
entropy keys and also conceals original biometric data such that it is impossible to recover the biometric data
even when the stored information in the system is open to an attacker.
Owuama, K. C, Oguoma, O. N.
Page No : 140-147
APPLICATION OF QUEUEING THEORY TO PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF A MEDIUM SCALE VEGETABLE OIL- PRODUCING PLANT IN OWERRI
The performance characterization of a medium scale vegetable oil plant in Owerri is presented. Using the
queue methodology, it was established that the plant operates the queue model [(M
with Poisson arrival mass rate of palm kernel and Poisson processing rate of the machines and multiple but
identical servers. Infinite population and strict queue discipline of First-Come, First-Served. The performance
characteristics of the queue system of the plant; queue length, waiting time in queue, number of units in system
and waiting time in the system were discovered to decrease with decreases in utilization factor or decrease in
number of processing machines. As a result the total time spent in the system is dominated more by service time
rather than waiting time in queue. At 0.745 utilization factor the waiting time in system is 1.86 days out of
which 0.49 days is waiting time in queue. There is triple increase in waiting time in queue and queue length at
any machine breakdown. This queue performance unveiled, equips the management with critical information
that enables cost effective management of the queue problems of the plant.
Nnaemeka, C. J, Onukwuli, O. D, Ikezue, E.
Page No : 148-157
MODELLING THE KINETICS OF ACID-BASE CATALYSIS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM WASTE UBE FRUIT OIL
The production of biodiesel from waste ube oil was carried out through a two step process of esterification and
transesterification reaction. The kinetics of the esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) in the waste ube oil with
methanol, in the presence of Sulphuric acid at concentration of 10wt% relative to free fatty acids as catalyst
concentration and methanol/oil ratio of 10:1. The energy of activation for the forward reaction decreased with
increasing catalyst concentration from 4006.41 to 1346.15J/mol. The FFA was reduced from 77.84% to 0.97%
in 2 hours. The kinetics of transesterification was studied with the model developed and simulated to give a
result of 95.5% molar yield of biodiesel at reaction time of 60 minutes under catalyst concentration of 1%,
methanol/oil ratio of 6:1 and temperature of 55
Obi, P. I, Nwabueze, C. A, Nnodimele, V. A.
Page No : 158-165
3-PHASE TRANSIENT STABILITY FAULT ANALYSIS OF A SINGLE MACHINE CONNECTED TO AN INFINITE BUSBAR EMPLOYING MODIFIED HUMPAGE MODEL
Transient stability analysis has recently become a major issue in the operation of power system due to the
increasing stress on power system networks. Solving this problem requires evaluation of power system’s
ability to withstand disturbances while maintaining the quality of service. This paper provides a study of
power system stability with the aim of overcoming and preventing disturbances or perturbations in power
system networks. The stability of an interconnected power system network is its ability to return to stable
state after been subjected to some form of disturbances. In this regard, a 3-phase fault is inflicted on the
generator bus bar of the power system network. The fault was cleared in 0.2 seconds. The swing equation
and the 4th order Runge Kutta integration method were used to apply to the equation of the system which
caused a change in the machine rotor angle. The static var compensator was introduced to enhance the
stability of the system. The tendency of the rotor angle versus time curves was used to determine the stability
or instability of test case using MATLAB code. This work employed the modified Humpage Model of power
system in which a single machine connected to an infinite bus bar via the transmission network. The results
so obtained is effective in planning or operation of power system because in all stability studies, the aim is to
determine the machine rotor angle being disturbed returns to constant speed operation for maximum power
Iwuoha, A. U, Isiohia, D. O, Onyeka, J. O, Atanmo, P. N.
Page No : 166-177
LOCALISED CORROSION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF AISI 304L (UNS S30403) STAINLESS STEEL WELDED JOINTS IN SEA WATER
This study is on the susceptibility of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel welded joints to localized pitting
corrosion in sea water. AISI 304L is more resistant to corrosion primarily because of its low carbon content.
This makes it less susceptible to welding sensitization. However, high power density welding techniques
like electron beam or laser beam creates a narrow HAZ and with its rapid cooling leaves the Cr in solution
for formation of Cr-oxide. The study compared the pitting resistance of welded joints [produced by SMAW
and MIG] in two sea waters –one natural (of 4% dissolved salt content) and the other synthetic (of 8%
dissolved salt content). All the studies were by immersion method. The WM and HAZ by MIG indicated
higher pitting corrosion resistance in both environments, that of SMAW were found susceptible in both
media, with higher pitting density in the greater salt-concentration environment. The near-high power
density of MIG process succeeded in creating a narrow HAZ because of sharp thermal slope inherent in the
technique. This was not the case for SMAW joints with extended HAZ and attendant Cr
Cr depletion. From this paper, AISI 304L welded joints made by MIG and service-deployed in sea water
(dissolved salt content < 8%) handling facilities can be considered stable and “safe.” The SMAW process
sensitized the HAZ, and the regions of austenite / delta-ferrite interface was greater -hence the
corresponding corrosion-weak sites. This negatively shifted the pitting potential of joints by SMAW.
Nwabueze, C. A, Anyanwu, M. C.
Page No : 178-190
ENHANCED COST CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MONITORING ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN NIGERIA
Electricity demand in households resulting from unpredictable consumption pattern has been serious
concerns in Nigerian power industry. Existing metering systems have not addressed the various
challenges of enabling daily tracking of power usage patterns in homes. This work presents collocation
Cost Control Smart Metering System (CCSMS) for monitoring electricity consumption. The main
limitation of existing traditional meters is that they do not provide sufficient real time information to the
consumers. In this work, a collocation cost control model using a smart metering system that helps
consumers to understand their instantaneous consumption profile was developed which will facilitate
demand side response in consumers’ homes. Proteus ISIS logic was employed to characterize the
behaviour of the system, while fuzzy logic intelligent algorithm was used to provide a mechanism for the
metering intelligence using the process variables (current, voltage, load demand and recharge units).
The cases for compact and non-compact responses on the cost and average power consumed were
demonstrated. The results showed flattening consumption costs for corresponding average power
consumed in an hourly scale. From the study, it was observed that for non-compact distribution, over
2500kwh of power was lost, while for compact distribution, the power loss was minimal (less than 100150kwh).
Consequently, this work established the need for using a collocation CCSMS in monitoring
power consumption data in various households and interpretation of the data for hourly measurement.
This has the implication of assisting home users to practically enforce demand side management thereby
encouraging cost saving.
Ogbogu, S.O.E, Eke, Frank.
Page No : 191-200
IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ON DISTRIBUTION NETWORK IN IMO STATE
Despite the government huge investments into the power sector, to adequately ensure regular power supply
to electricity consumers, there are still gross inadequacies on the regularity of electricity in the country.
This paper analyses the use and impact of Distributed Generation (DG) on regularity and quality of power
supply in Nigeria and Imo State in particular. Gas turbine was the DG considered due to its availability and
significant impact it could make on network. A 12-bus network in Imo State namely: bus 1 (Alaoji), bus 2
(Onitsha Road), bus 3 (Ahaoda), bus 4 (Egbu 1), bus 5 (Owerri 1), bus 6 (Okigwe Road), bus 7 (Owerri 2),
bus 8 (Oguta), bus 9 (Orlu), bus 10 (Mbaise Road), bus 11 (Port Harcourt Road), bus 12 (Onitsha Road)
was considered and 25MW DG was individually connected on these buses alternatively and their network
conditions assessed for voltage violations, losses, maximum loading factor, etc. This was repeated for
simultaneous placement of 2 DGs and 3DGs on the 12-bus network and the buses conditions observed as
was done for single DG placement. The results indicated that single DG placement or installations recorded
losses in all the 12 buses however, the least was on bus no. 5 (Owerri 1). The best result on loadability was
recorded at bus 7 (Owerri 2), with minimum loss recorded at bus 5 (Owerri 1). Simultaneous addition of
2DGs on the network and subsequent dynamic stability test revealed that bus 2 (Onitsha Road 1) and bus 3
(Ahaoda), bus 2 (Onitsha Road) and bus 4 (Egbu 1), bus 2 (Onitsha Road 1) and bus 7 (Owerri 2), bus 3
(Ahaoda) and bus 10 (Mbaise Road); bus 4 (Egbu 1) and bus 11 (Port Harcourt Road), bus 5 (Owerri 1)
and bus 10 (Mbaise Road), bus 7 (Owerri 2) and bus 11 (Port Harcourt Road), gave violations of 5 and
buses 3 (Ahaoda) and 5 (Owerri 1), 3 (Ahaoda) and 11 (Port Harcourt Road) gave violation of 7. However,
when 3DGs were simultaneously added to the network at three buses and the network conditions assessed:
the best were observed as buses 5 (Owerri 1), 7 (Owerri 2), and 11 (Port Harcourt Road). At these buses,
the network recorded no voltage violation, high loading factor of 1.160 pu, little loss of 0.02355 for normal
load flow while at collapse point, it was 0.07019 pu. In conclusion, placement or location of 3 DGs at buses
5 (Owerri 1), 7 (Owerri 2) and 11 (Port Harcourt Road) gave the network, the best condition and
Anumaka, M. C, Isioha, D. O.
Page No : 201-207
FEASIBLE DEVELOPMENT OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC (MHD) POWER PLANT IN NIGERIA
This paper examines the feasible development of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) power plant in Nigeria. It
proffers the possibility of harnessing magneto-hydrodynamic technology as dependable energy mix forameliorating epileptic and incessant electric power failures due to inadequate power supply, and minimizes
the excessive depletion of fossil fuel in the country. The methodology used in this study entails application of
basic conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy, and induction equation. Findings reveal that in
spite of abundant conductive fluids in the third world countries like Nigeria, India, etc., the benefits
derivable from the MHD power plant were ignored due to dearth of technological know-how required tocarry out the installation and operation of the MHD plant. Implementation of this study will eliminate gasflaring in Nigeria, enhance adequate supply of electricity to the rural communities in the countrydrastically reduce depletion of fossil oil that causes global warming, environmental pollution anddegradation, as well as increasing the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
Nwosu, A. W, Asiwe, M. U.
Page No : 208-218
LIMITING STATOR CURRENT FOR THREE-PHASE INDUCTION DRIVE MOTOR USING PULSE WIDTH MODULATION SYSTEM
Induction motor is the most widely used electromechanical machine due to its low cost and minimum
maintenance. It has more losses, less efficiency and high power consumption when working at variable speed.
The influence of these motors (in term of energy consumption) in energy intensive industries is significant in
total input cost. This research presents a development of optimal control system for induction motor drives
using pulse width modulation system leading to optimization of the stator current to its least possible value for a
given output torque and energy saving. The stator voltage values of the induction motor was varied by varying
the modulation index (M
) using the principle of constant flux. The classical optimal control system which uses
information on torque of the motor was used to generate the appropriate voltage amplitude that minimized the
induction motor stator current. The constant optimal stator current controller models were configured and built
for a set of experimental data using MATLAB computer program. The models were validated by simulation
using a typical three-phase induction motor of 4000kw, 400V at a nominal frequency of 50Hz drive model
implemented with MATLAB/Simulink toolbox. The results show that at minimum torque, the initial current
needed to operate the induction motor at nominal frequency using the open loop system was 3.6A but using the
classical control, 1.6A was needed to operate the induction motor saving 2.0A. The results show greater stator
current minimization when implementing classical optimal control system.
Onukwuli, O. D, Okoronkwo G.O.
Page No : 219-223
TENSILE PROPERTIES OF RAMIE FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
The tensile properties of randomly oriented short fiber lengths from agricultural based plant stems ramie
fiber/epoxy composites are described for the first time in this work. Composites were fabricated using raw
ramie fibers with varying fiber weight percent’s viz. 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45wt. %. The tensile parameter such
as maximum stress, Young’s modulus and elongation at break were determined using the universal testing
machine (UTM). Wet hand lay-up technique was used for the preparation of the composite. Effect of alkali
treatment of ramie fiber epoxy composites were also studied on the tensile properties. Ramie fiber epoxy
composites showed a regular trend of an increase in properties with fiber weight percent until 40% and
afterwards a decrease in properties for composites with greater fiber weight percent. It was observed that
the decreased performance was attributed for randomly fabric was due to the fiber agglomerations between
the fabric and matrix, there by overlapping between them increased. The analysis of the tensile parameters
of short ramie fiber epoxy composites displayed an optimum fiber weight percent at 40wt. %. DSC and TGA
of treated and untreated ramie fiber epoxy composites were also studied.
Nwabueze, C. A., Ibegbunam, C.
Page No : 224-229
HIGH PERFORMANCE ADAPTIVE ANTENNA ARRAY FOR WCDMA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
This work presents the uniform linear Array model of a simple adaptive antenna array based on signal to
interference plus noise ratio (SINR) maximization. A simple adaptive antenna array which can form part of a
WCDMA base station structure was developed. Interference and noise reduction capabilities of an adaptive
antenna array were investigated, comprehensive analysis of omnidirectional antenna and adaptive antenna
array was done based on SINR maximization. The SINR was investigated for a conventional narrow band beam
former by varying the number of the antenna array elements and the number of interfering signals or users. The
principle of adaptive antenna array and mathematical model was deployed. Adaptive antenna as observed from
the analysis indicated great improvement in the SINR over omni-directional antenna. It was discovered as well
that there is significant improvement in SINR as the number of antenna elements increases in the presence of
large interferences for odd number array, precisely when odd numbered elements were used with inter-element
spacing of d = 0.5λ. Improving the interference suppression and noise reduction capabilities of any system in
the presence of large interferers hence increases the capacity of that system. Thus, comparing SINR for d= 0.5λ
and d= 0.75λ, the result obtained showed that SINR for d= 0.5λ is always less than that for d= 0.75λ, therefore
the odd numbered array 9 and 11 gives significant improvement in SINR when compared to even numbered
array with value remaining the same in the presence of six or more interferences. When the reversed, the
desired improvement for high performance antenna system was not achievable.
Mbachu, C. B, Ogamba, M. O.
Page No : 230-236
SECURITY VIOLATION MANAGEMENT FOR ATMS TRANSACTIONS IN THE BANKING SECTORS USING BIOMETRIC FINGERPRINTS
Fingerprints, an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger are an important part of the studies of
forensic science. They are deposited and left everywhere on suitable surfaces (such as: glasses, metals, and/or
polished surfaces) by some natural secretions of sweat from the eecrine glands that are present in the epidermal
ridges. Involving or adopting the use of fingerprints into the banking sector for the security of ATMs and
customers would go a longer way in playing a critical role in preventing attacks on the banks and customers.
This can equally lead to check-mating the loop-holes and vulnerabilities that are linked to the bank-ATM frauds.
Banks must meet and employ certain standards so as to ensure a safer banking environment. This paper focuses
on the flaws and the increasing waves of criminal activities taking hold on ATMs (Automated Teller Machines)
where quick cash in transit is the primary target on the customers. A biometric means as the measure of enhancing
this security has emerged from the discourse.
Ulasi, A. J., Ugorji, A. C.
Page No : 237-245
LOAD FREQUECY CONTROL OF TWO AREA NETWORK, USING FUZZY LOGIC
A fuzzy logic based load frequency controller model for power systems is developed and simulated in this paper.
The proposed simulation model is compared with the classical regulating systems in order to verify and show
the advantages of the model and controller developed. The design process of the proposed fuzzy logic controller
is given in detail step by step to show a direct and simple approach for designing fuzzy logic controllers in
power systems. After the simulation it was observed that the fuzzy logic control came back to normality and
continued stable after 20sec unlike the normal approach which didn’t come back to stability though continued
at a steady state after about 15sec. Both were distorted after 10secs.
Anumaka, M.C, Isioha D.O.
Page No : 246-253
IMPACT OF AUTHENTICITY OF ENGINEERING PROFESSION ON SOCIOECONOMIC AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
The engineering profession has been invaluable in the improvement of capacity building and sustainabledevelopment. This research work examines the impact of authenticity of engineering profession onsocioeconomic and human development. The focus of this study is to determine if the authenticity ofengineering profession has effect on human development and socioeconomic activities. This study
outlines the benefits of engineering profession on manpower development. Data from the primarysources were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics particularly chi-square distributiontest. Findings revealed that engineering profession contributed large percentage of human developmentand boost socioeconomic activities because the engineering profession pools other resources together
for realization of objectives. Therefore, it was recommended that the Government should embrace thisunique sector and apportion two and half percent of annual budget to engineering profession andhuman development in order to ensure continuous improvement in industrialization, and sustainable
Ukpaka, G. C.
Page No : 254-261
URGENT NEED TO EFFECTIVELY ARREST THE INTRACTABLE EROSION PROBLEMS FACING ANAMBRA STATE
Anambra State has been horrendously ravaged by a devastating erosion onslaught dating back to the early 20
century. Erosion is concerned with the destruction and carrying away of top and sub-soil by the forces of wind,
water and other forms of precipitation. There are different types, degrees and complexities of erosion. Effects
are awful and control is difficult. It is one thing for man to acknowledge his apparent helplessness in the face of
the indefatigable forces of nature, but another thing for man not to engage in unhealthy habits that exacerbate
nature’s destructive powers but instead to channel nature’s forces to his advantage. All hands must therefore be
on deck to ensure that Anambrarians and their partners are effectively dissuaded form ignorantly or otherwise,
assisting erosion to consume the state, but rather to contribute their quota (individually and collectively)
towards arresting this hydra-headed monster before it succeeds in depriving our posterity of a state they can
call their own. This paper highlights the erosion challenges in Anambra state, with perspectives on what has
been done in the past, what obtains presently and how these challenges can be overcome.
Effiong E. E, Nwanekezie, M. N, Okafor, B. O.
Page No : 262-273
INTERACTIVE M-FILE ALGORITHM FOR ESTIMATING NUMBER OF PLATES AT TOTAL REFLUX IN A DISTILLATION COLUMN
This paper presents an interactive M-file algorithm capable of running in a MATLAB environment, which
can estimate the number of theoretical plates a distillation column ought to contain at total reflux to
efficiently separate a multicomponent mixture into their individual components. Fenske’s model was used to
achieve the estimation at total reflux, and six feed variations for the multicomponent mixture of propane,
iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane and n-pentane were used as case studies. The first three feed variation
have iso-butane and n-butane as the light and heavy key respectively while the last three feed variation have
iso-pentane and n-pentane as the light and heavy key respectively. 2.324, 2.321, 2.321, 2.775, 2.718 and
2.691 average relative volatilities, condenser temperatures of 324K, 325K, 325K, 357K, 359K and 360K,
reboiler temperatures of 369K, 371K, 372K, 387K, 387K and 387K obtained for the six feed variations
respectively when applied in Fenske’s model, gave a minimum of 6.62, 6.66, 6.63, 6.57, 6.72 and 6.77 plates
as the number of theoretical plates required by the column for optimum separation of the components in
each feed variation. This method is simple, robust and saves time.
Onukwuli, O. D, Nwanekezie, M. N, Anadebe, V.C, Omotioma, M.
Page No : 274-282
OPTIMIZATION OF THE INHIBITION EFFICIENCY OF BITTER KOLA LEAF EXTRACT AS CORROSION INHIBITOR OF MILD STEEL IN H2 SO4
This work is on the optimization of the inhibition efficiency of bitter kola leaf extract as corrosion inhibitor of mild
steel in H
. Gravimetric method was employed in the corrosion inhibition study. It was supplemented by Fourier
transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometric and scanning electron microscopic analyses of the plant extract and
mild steel surface respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in the optimization process. Central
composite design tool of design expert software 9 was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of four variables of
acid concentration (AC), inhibitor concentration (IC), temperature (T) and time (t) on the inhibition efficiency of the
extract. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to study the data generated. From the analyses of the experimental
results, it was observed that there was a synergy among the functional groups of O-H, C-H, C=C and N-H in the
corrosion inhibition process. Bitter kola leaves extract exhibited optimum inhibition efficiency of 83.56 % obtained at
optima acid concentration of 1.2 M, inhibitor concentration of 0.9 g/l, temperature of 300 K and time of 21 hours. The
extract is highly efficient in surface treatment of the mild steel in H2 SO4 medium.
Okpala, K. O, Nwanekezie, M. N, C.A Obiajuru. .
Page No : 283-290
CORROSION INHIBITOR OF MILD STEEL IN 1M SULFURIC ACID (H 2 SO 4 ) SOLUTION USING MORINGA LEAF AND SEED EXTRACTS.
The inhibitive effect of Moringa leaf (LE) and Moringa seed (SE) on mild steel corrosion in 1M H
investigated using standard weight loss at 32
C and 60
C.The analysis of the experimental results revealed that the leaves
and seeds extract establish their inhibitive action through adsorption of phytochemical component molecules on the metal
surface. The FTIR analysis of leaf and seed extracts and corrosion product shows the variation of the peak numbers and
the nature of the shifts indicate that there is synergy among the functional groups of the Moringa leaf and Moringa seed
extracts in the corrosion inhibition process. Potentiodynamics polarization shows that the extracts inhibited both cathodic
and anodic reactions and acted as mixed-type inhibitor. Moreover, the inhibitive action of the plants extract demonstrates
that the adsorption of plants extract is spontaneous and the physical adsorptions are found in accord with Langmuir
isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters governing the adsorption process were calculated and discussed.