Obi, P. I., Amako, A. E, Okorie, S, Emeghara, M. C.
Page No : 1-13
Dynamic Modelling of Load Demand for Efficient Power Dispatch in Umuahia Metropolis
Despite Nigeria’s key position in Africa, electric power crisis and frequent outages in the Nation have degenerated to amajor acute problem. These problems are associated with inadequate generation, insufficient and unreliableevacuation/transmission of same. As a result, dispatch centers and distribution companies find it difficult to optimally
dispatch the limited energy particularly to economic viable consumers considering the fact that the bedrock of everyindustry is primarily to survive extinction through revenue collection. However, this research is focused on presenting anefficient and economic power dispatch technique in Umuahia Metropolis. The materials used in this research include load
data from eight EEDC Injection Substations in Umuahia Metropolis, MATLAB Simulation Software and Microsoft Excel.Also, the methods adopted are statistical method of interpolation and Mann-Whitney’s test for data collection andevaluation. Load demand (daily, monthly and yearly) equations were used for data analysis and interpretation. Also, aneconomic load dispatch technique was developed using Microsoft Excel. This technique design has the ability to distribute
available power (energy allocation) with respect to economically viable consumers. However, if these results are carefullyimplemented, it will afford EEDC the opportunity to serve their economically viable customers better and will alsomotivate other non-economic viable customers to improve. Thus, EEDC’s general revenue collection will increase, sincethe main aim of every business owner is primarily to increase productivity and maximize profit (Optimization).
Umeuzuegbu, J. C. .
Page No : 14-26
Synthesis and Characterization of Biodiesel from Avacado Pear Oil
The world energy demand is increasing by day as a result of increase in population and high spate of industrialization.
This has therefore resulted in the search of alternative energy sources to replace the fast depleting fossil fuels. This
research work is therefore focused on the synthesis and characterization of avocado pear oil fatty acid methyl ester
(APOFAME) as a renewable energy. The oil content of avocado pear was extracted using solvent extraction method.
Avacado pear oil was characterized based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method. The fatty acid
profile was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry while the functional group of the oil was analysed
using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect of process parameter on the yield of APOFAME was
investigated using one factor at a time method. The APO was pretreated to reduce the free fatty acid below 1% and then
traesterified using ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. The fuel properties of the APOFAME
produced was determined based on ASTM standards. The physiochemical properties of APO , free fatty acid,
saponification value, iodine value , kinematic viscosity, fire point, flash point, cloud point, pour point, density , moisture
content, gave the values 7.15%, 201.4mgKOH/g, 74.8gI
6% respectively. The fatty acid profile of APO shows the constituents to be lauric acid 12.30%, palmitic acid 24.20%,
stearic acid 18.20%, myristic acid 14.54%, while the unsaturated fatty acid constituents are linolenic acd 10.61%,,
sapentaenoic acid 12.57%, and linoleic acid 7.55%. The process parameters , catalyst concentration, reaction
temperature, ,methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time greatly affected the biodiesel yield as their increase resulted
in the increase of biodiesel yield until the optimum parameter was reached when the yield started decreasing. The
experimentally determined properties of the APOFAME; acid value, density, kinematic viscosity, fire point, flash point,
cetane number, refractive index, calorific value, iodine value, cloud point and pour point gave the values, 0.29, 873Kg/m
C, 62.69, 1.5464, 34.683MJ/Kg, 34.2gI2/100g, 7
Okereke, J. O, Nwabueze, C. A., Akaneme, S. A.
Page No : 27-37
Mitigation of Interference in Colocated Wireless Systems Using Baseband QPSK Post Distortion Cancellation
Intermodulation interference occurs when transmitters are co-located as well as in nonlinearity of the signal processing
during modulation. This distortion in nonlinear systems are not needed in radio signal processing because they generate
unwanted spurious emissions which occupy the spectrum of the desired signal frequency as sidebands thereby distorting
or masking the desired signal. A post distortion cancellation technique is proposed, using quadrature phase shift keying
(QPSK) baseband receiver that is capable of cancelling the intermodulation interference. In the proposed model, an
estimated copy of the distortion is coupled to a QPSK baseband receiver to be out of phase to each other to cancel out the
intermodulation interference using structured system analysis and design methodology. This proposed technique was
carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK software where an intermodulation distortion is generated using two local colocated
that have hit the desired signal and recover the transmitted message successfully. This technique is
capable of cancelling intermodulation interference that occurs in co-located setting and is able to recover the transmitted
signal that gets to the receiver, achieving a low bit error rate (BER) of 0.00064, high gain of 40dB in signal-to-noise ratio
Ikezue, E. N, Ogah, O. A, Nwanekezie, M. N..
Page No : 38-43
Statistical Prediction of the Creep Distribution for Hibiscus Esculentus Fibre – Reinforced Polymer Composites
The paper highlights the results of experimental evaluation of the mechanical properties of hibiscus esculentus fibre
reinforced polymer composite which were fabricated using the hand moulding process. The sample fibre was treated
with various chemical solutions including alkali treatment and the tensile strength, youngs modulus and ultimate
elongation for the treated sample was found to be 171.6, 1653 N/mm
6.5% respectively as against the values
and 7.25% respectively for tensile strength, youngs modulus and ultimate elongation for the
untreated sample. This shows that the mechanical properties of the sample are higher than that of the untreated one.
This is due to the increase in fibre-matrix bond and adhersibility properties as a result of the alkali treatment. The
minimum creep rates occur for polymer composite sample which has 1cm fibre length and 50% fibre volume fraction.
This is due to the high fibre content of the composite sample. The statistical model of the creep rate was developed from
the experimental data and the adjusted R
was found to be greater 0.5 as observed from table 6.0 which shows a good
correlation between experimental data.
Egbosiuba, T. C.
Page No : 44-58
Optimization and Characterization of Ethyl Ethanoate Produced from Cellulosic Bioethanol Using an Organic Acid
This research presents the report of the optimization of esterification process using 2
factorial design to study the effects
of temperature, mole ratio of bioethanol to ethanoic acid, catalyst concentration and esterification time on the yield of
ethyl ethanoate. A maximum yield of 98 % of ethyl ethanoate was obtained at the temperature of 65 ℃, mole ratio of
bioethanol to ethanoic acid of 2: 1, catalyst concentration of 0.25 𝑤𝑡 % and esterification time of 90 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑠. Design expert
software utilized in the statistical analysis of 2
factorial design indicates that esterification time and temperature had the
highest effect of 58.50 and 17 respectively. The model equation developed with the aid of the statistical tool was given as
𝑌𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑=58.00 + 8.50 𝐴 - 3.13 𝐵 - 1.75 𝐶 + 29.25 𝐷 - 0.38 𝐴𝐵 + 0.00 𝐴𝐶 - 0.50 𝐴𝐷 + 0.37 𝐵𝐶 + 0.87 𝐵𝐷 +0.50 𝐶𝐷0.12
0.88 𝐴𝐵𝐷+0.50 𝐴𝐶𝐷-0.12 𝐵𝐶𝐷+0.12 𝐴𝐵𝐶𝐷 with A, B, C and D representing temperature, mole ratio,
catalyst concentration and time respectively. Characterization of the produced ethyl ethanoate was carried out to
determine the kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, flash point, refractive index, sulphur content, water content and
compared with the ASTM standard. FT-IR analysis was carried out on the ethyl ethanoate samples which yielded the
functional groups of the compounds in the produced ethyl ethanoate.
Okeke, V. N, Uju, I, Nwabueze, C. A.
Page No : 59-71
Performance Enhancement of Temperature Control Response for Extruder Plant in Electric Cable Manufacturing
There are many control strategies employed in electric cable manufacturing industry to produce high quality
products. In order to ensure good quality product formation, one requirement is to control the temperature of an
extruder plant so as to form molten plastic on a wire. The gain parameters of the proportional integral and derivative
(PID) controller designed in this work were obtained using the MATLAB PID tuner. The gain parameters were then
implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment. The designed controller was integrated with the single screw
plastic extruder dynamic model to have an efficient control loop. The efficiency provided by the designed controller
shows that the system responds efficiently to a step input temperature. The improved efficient characteristics
performances of the system are rise time of 0.0245s, settling time of 0.237s and overshoot of 6.92%. The designed
controller can be effectively employed in a single screw extruder for efficient electric cable manufacturing
Ezeonu, I. C, Iloh, J. P, Akaneme, S. A, Nwabueze, C. A..
Page No : 72-84
Perturb and Observe – Particle Swarm Optimization (PO-PSO) Algorithm for Maximum Power Point Tracking in Photovoltaic Systems
Varying weather and poor technical conditions such as Partial shading condition (PSC), module mismatch etc are
known factors that adversely affect the maximum power output of photovoltaic (PV) systems. Under such conditions,
the photovoltaic systems electrical characteristics (mainly power, voltage and current) become more complex
exhibiting numerous maximum power points (MPP). Most predictable Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
algorithms, such as P&O, incremental conductance INC, etc often get trapped at the local MPP and thus restraining
the maximum power generation. To solve this problem, This paper proposes a hybrid method known as Perturb and
Observe with Particle Swarm Optimization (PO-PSO) algorithm for maximizing power output of photovoltaic (PV)
arrays. The PO-PSO algorithm was implemented on the PV under varying weather conditions and power generated
from the array was monitored. The performances of usual P&O, PSO and the proposed PO-PSO algorithms were also
studied while subjecting them to varying conditions. The simulation results showed that the developed PO- PSO
algorithm was able to assist the PV array system to attain the global MPP (GMPP) and support the PV array to
produce more stable and reliable power output compared to the P&O and PSO algorithms implemented separately.
Anaidhuno, U. P, Owuama C. K, Swift, N. K.
Page No : 85-94
Sustainability of Sisal/Jute Hybrid Polymer Composite for Production of Automobile Body Parts.
This research investigated the sustainability of sisal/jute hybrid polymer composite for automobile application. Sisal/Jute
hybrid polymers composite are of low cost, light weight, as well as possess satisfactory mechanical properties, easy
making, availability and user friendly. Sisal/Jute fibres have been proven alternative to synthetic fiber and also
advancing with a substantial potential to displace conventional mild steel in the automobile industry. In this research
work, hybrid composites have been developed using hand layup technique based on percentage combination of Sisal and
Jute fibers in the form of laminates prepared from Unsaturate polyester resin. The prepared laminate samples were
subjected to tensile, flexural, impact and compressive, tests to evaluate their strength which was based on orientations
and fibre percentage combination. Sisal/jute hybrid polymer composite demonstrated fairly good mechanical properties
that could absolutely substitute conventional mild steel used in automobile body.
Mmeka P. T, Ezeagu C. A, Ososona C. O.
Page No : 95-102
Effects of Different Sizes of Coarse Aggregates On Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different sizes of coarse aggregates on the splitting tensile strength of
concrete. Preliminary investigations using ACI mix design method for test such as splitting tensile strength of the different
aggregates sizes were conducted. The aggregates (fine and coarse) used for the concrete were collected from gneiss rock
deposits from L-Adisa, along Ojoo-Moniya Road, Ibadan. The aggregates were sun-dried and sieved to different sizes
with the set of sieves: BS sieve 19mm, BS sieve 13.2mm, BS sieve 9.5mm, BS sieve 4.75mm, and were classified based on
aggregates passing the aforementioned sieves in the Department of Civil Engineering. Splitting strength test were
conducted after duly checking ages of curing to ascertain its relatedness to structural failures. The result was an increase
in splitting tensile strength of concrete at 7days (with 5.71Mpa for concrete of coarse aggregate size of 19mm), rising to
splitting tensile strength of 6.94Mpa after 28days. There was increase in splitting tensile strength of concrete made from
different sizes of coarse aggregates based on progressive increase in curing age. Similarly, there was corresponding
decrease in the splitting tensile strength of concrete as coarse aggregate sizes decreased. So, from these results it was
deduced that, generally, the bigger the mean size of aggregates (MSA), the greater the splitting tensile strength of
concrete, so long the coarse aggregates are properly graded and the maximum size of aggregates used doesn’t exceed
of the least dimension of the concrete work.
Ikezue, E. N, Okeke, A. C, Okoye, J. O..
Page No : 103-108
Pharmaco-Kinetic Prediction of the Drug Distribution Profile in A Human Physiological System
Drugs are medicinal substances that are administered mostly orally and then metabolized in the gastro-intestinal tract
(G.I.T) and subsequently assimilated in the blood stream. The paper highlights computerized solutions of a simplified
mathematical model that adequately simulates the drug distribution profile in a human physiological process. The
result shows the mechanism or the process of absorption in the blood vessels X(t) and the initial build up in the G.I.T
and predicts that the ingested drug concentration reduces exponentially in the G.I.T due to metabolic action and then
starts from an infinitesimal amount in the blood stream and increases to a threshold value as it is being distributed to
various parts of the human body.