Synchronization in the time-frequency domain for the fifth-generation (5G) new radio (NR) takes the fundamental steps as in all mobile networks to have user equipment (UE) properly receive and transmit data. The corresponding synchronization for 5G has various challenges due to the wide range of frequencies. This is more so when it comes to applications that would need accurate oscillators to reduce the large values of the frequency offset. This paper presents challenges and issues within the 5G NR synchronization specifically on the pilot-based time and frequency synchronization for OFDM and UFMC systems. It also compares cyclic prefix (CP) based synchronization as it applies to OFDM systems with UFMC noting that no CP is inserted in UFMC system. The effect of timing and frequency offset on OFDM and UFMC systems is then presented with two approaches, CP-based and pilot-based synchronization. Simulation results of the synchronization performance shows that the UFMC out performs OFDM making it more adaptable to 5G considerations.
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